Category Archives: PharmD Careers

Dual Degree Program: MD and PharmD

 

 

 

 

 

The Rutgers Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy currently offers a dual degree program for both the Doctor of Medicine (MD) and Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) in addition to several other dual degree programs such as PharmD / PhD, PharmD / MPH and PharmD / MBA.  Although, many pharmacy schools offer dual degree programs, this may be one of the first to offer some sort of pathway for an MD in addition to a PharmD.  According to the website’s current description for the program, only “enrolled” PharmD students are eligible to apply; they may apply during the Fall of their second or third professional years (P2/P3).  Once accepted, they may enter medical school after successfully finishing their PharmD program.  This is important to note because one feature many people may look for in a dual degree program is the reduced time it would take to receive both degrees at once as opposed to applying and obtaining each degree separately.  As a result, there appears to be no advantage in saving time;  it seems one would have to finish both the MD and PharmD programs in the same length of time as it would have taken to finish the MD and PharmD separately assuming the applicant enrolls into the programs sequentially.

Now let’s review the time required to be a full-fledged MD/PharmD with a few examples:

Applicant A:  Two years of pre-professional studies + four years of professional PharmD program + four years of MD program + three to fives years of residency + year(s) fellowship (depending on specialty).

Total aggregate time spent obtaining both degrees and finishing residency after a high school diploma:  At least 13 years to 15 years or more (depending on fellowship/specialty).

Applicant B:  The second type of applicant would already have a bachelor’s degree which would have taken around four years to complete, and would have to apply to pharmacy school which would generally take another four years…plus four more years of medical school.  Applying to the MD / PharmD dual degree program would mean they would have to commit to at least 15 to 17 or more years of school and training after a high school  diploma before finishing residency, and even more if pursuing a fellowship/specialty.

Assuming the average age of a high school graduate is eighteen years of age, a person finishing a MD / PharmD program and residency would probably be around 31 to 33 years of age assuming no entry into a fellowship.

Such a person finishing years of rigorous schooling should be congratulated; it is a difficult task to accomplish even one professional degree.  But before one can bask in the glory of their dual titles, with the benefit of adding extra letters on their resumes and business cards along with their names, it would be prudent to review the pro’s and con’s of such a program, as each person’s life situation will vary.  Here are some factors to consider:

Pros:

Opportunities:  The dual title will surely grant more job opportunities…more so in leadership roles which may garner higher incomes.

Knowledge:  Someone with both an MD and PharmD would surely know a good deal about pharmacology and its applications in the clinical settings.

Prestige:  Having both degrees will draw prestige…as you may be part of a very limited pool of specialists holding both degrees.

Skip the MCATs:  No need to study for this tough exam if admitted into the program.  However, your grades, extra-curricular activities, leadership qualities, and other accomplishments and experience will probably be more scrutinized.

Cons:

Time horizon:  Having back-to-back degrees and training will require more time, which could affect your social life.  An eighteen year old will probably be in their mid-thirties before they can capture their full income potential.

Finances:  Staying in school longer while being financed by high interest loans could lead to an enormous amount of debt which may take years to pay back unless you come from wealth.  One would have to obtain a job after residency (or fellowship) that pays well enough to justify the time expended to earn both degrees.  Adding to these expenses for a typical mid-thirty year old something:  compounding interests on the loan, family expenses (e.g. wedding, children, mortgage, cars, etc).

Job placement:  A dual MD / PharmD graduate should probably pursue something related to both where both knowledge and skills could be best utilized…otherwise what would be the point in wasting all the time and money? This may narrow the job searches to teaching professions or medical research and drug companies.  Also, if accepting a position that could have been obtained with only one degree or the other (e.g. MD or PharmD), such as a pharmacist or as a general doctor, or even a doctor specializing in gastroenterology who may not need a PharmD, the cost-benefit for pursuing a dual-degree program with respect to time and money may not be worth it.  Why go to medical school if you’re going to end up working in a hospital as a pharmacist?  Or why pursue a fellowship in transplant surgery when you could without having a PharmD?

The above are only a few factors to consider for the future applicant.  Of course to each their own, as one’s preferences and dreams are different from the next.  Each person will need to evaluate in their own way on whether such a program with its costs and benefits fit their goals in life.

Measuring Demand for Pharmacists

It is not uncommon these days to hear from pharmacy students or pharmacists about the pharmacist job market:  that the supply of pharmacists have risen, probably exceeding the demand for them.  If this imbalance occurs, the competitiveness with which a newly minted pharmacist could vie for a limited position rises, which could lead to the lowering of income earnings, reduced benefits, and maybe disagreeable shift assignments (e.g. night shift, weekends, holidays, etc) assigned to new hires .  Some point to the high volume of pharmacy schools that have been forming in the past decade, and the increase in class sizes observed at already established schools.  It is commonly known in the pharmacist job market that the majority of pharmacist positions are held in the retail and hospital setting.  Therefore, the demand for pharmacists may depend on the openings available in existing and new retailers and hospitals.  Job openings will post when pharmacists retire, when employees transfer or leave the position, or when new growth opportunities occur such as opening new retail stores and hospitals, as well as expansion seen in established retailers and hospitals.  In any case, a prudent pharmacy school candidate should perform thorough research to view the outlook of pharmacists’ demand and future job outlook, pay, benefits, and growth opportunities that are projected from the time they graduate and up until they retire.    Although such projections may not come to fruition in the future, it is a good idea to be informed of the economic landscape surrounding the pharmacist job market.

There are a few tips to gauge interest and demand for pharmacists which include but are not limited to job searches in your local area, and reviewing job statistics available from the Labor Department.  There are also searches that can be performed on the Internet, or information that may be of use from websites that offer some opinion or projected measures of such job demand. 

Here are a few of such resources:

Using a job search engines such as indeed.com will return available results within a locale.  For example, typing in the keyword, “pharmacist” in the “New York, NY” area generates 411 job results (see below) as of the time this search was performed.  Of course these results may change on a daily basis.  Using different job search engines may return similar and overlapping results, but some sites may return different information.

 

 

 

The same search performed on the same day returns 615 results in a different job search engine, simplyhired.com:

 

 

 

Therefore, it may be a good idea to use multiple job search engines when measuring openings in a specific city or area.  Using other keywords such as “pharmd” or “pharmacy” may generate a different set of results.

Another source of information is the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics.  Using the “Job Outlook” tab on their website will provide some information on the job prospects for pharmacists based on their data.  According to their page, the current information seems to be consistent with the perception of the rising competitiveness seen in this industry:

 

 

 

Finally, one interesting website (pharmacymanpower.com) measures the demand for pharmacists using a numbered scaled from 1 – 5:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The meanings of “unweighted”, “population adjusted”, and “response weighted” can be found on their website.  A further look in their site will show more information based on state, region, and job setting.

Viewing their map, the darker regions indicate higher demand, and lighter regions noting lower demand according to their website:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

However, it is important to note their disclaimer:

 

 

As all things, it is important to do your due diligence, and perform thorough research before committing to a decision.  Using a myriad and diversity of resources could provide a better picture about the market landscape, as well as seeking information from job search experts.

Tips to avoid getting stuck in the retail pharmacy setting

Many pharmacists have asked how they could get out of retail pharmacy.  Well, first of all, not getting stuck there in the first place is the easiest way to avoid it.  For example, if you are confident that you do not see yourself in a retail pharmacy position in the long run, try to work in the clinical setting right out of pharmacy school.  Many pharmacists in a retail pharmacy setting may find themselves in a bind because they want to earn money as quickly as possible to provide for themselves and their families, or paying off debts after toiling in pharmacy school for years and losing money to pay for tuition and its compounding interest.  This may be fine in the short run to take care of financial issues, but the long term career aspirations and goals may be compromised, stunted, or delayed by years for doing so.  Therefore, for those of you not interested in a retail pharmacy career, it may be beneficial to work towards a non-retail (e.g. clinical) career early on as long as financial issues could be deferred for a few more years after graduation.  Just like anything else in life, preparing and planning early may allow one to avoid long term regrets.  Here are some tips to land a clinical gig after pharmacy school.

Aim for a pharmacy internship or technician position in a hospital before or during pharmacy school to gain exposure to the work and services provided by a hospital pharmacy.  Learning how to compound intravenous admixtures, total parenteral admixtures, answering frantic phone calls, working with nurses, filling medication carts, and delivering medications to dispensing cabinets may provide a good comprehensive background of what to expect in the clinical setting.

Networking with other hospital inclined pharmacy students, professors, and pharmacists is a great way to get connected to the hospital world.  Networking with them may provide helpful and interesting tips and assistance.  They may be the first to know about hospital job openings at their own hospital, and even refer you to the right hiring managers so that you may receive a proper introduction.  Networking, regardless or pharmacy settings, is probably one of the most powerful tools at your disposal for any type of career and job.  Be sure to participate in relevant organizations, clubs, and social activities to expose yourself to meeting new people who may be of assistance later on.  For those that have already been in retail pharmacy for some time, and are having a difficult time landing a hospital pharmacy position, networking is probably one of the best ways to transition over to the clinical setting.  Joining a local hospital pharmacy organization, and attending local pharmacy conferences will allow one to network with many other local professionals, some who may work in the hospital setting, and provide you with tips and information about job openings.

Applying for a hospital residency or fellowship is another great way to get acclimated to the hospital environment.  After the conclusion of the residency and fellowship, a position may even be offered to you by your supervisor if there are openings upon successful completion of the residency or fellowship.  Having completed a residency is one of the best ways to be considered for a hospital position after graduation.  It may set you apart and above those that lack of a residency, or put you on par with those that have hospital experience.

Obtaining a board certification, such as board certified pharmacotherapy specialist (BCPS) may also beef up one’s resume to compete for the limited openings for hospital pharmacists.  This is not the easiest or cheapest route, but many hospitals appreciate the knowledge and skill provided by the BCPS pharmacist.  There are books and courses offered at pharmacy conferences dedicated to preparing pharmacists for this test.

 

 

Will you enjoy a career in pharmacy?

Do you really want to do this?  Do you really want to be a pharmacist?  If you finish a full PharmD (Doctor of Pharmacy) Professional Degree program – you’re looking at around four years of your entire life.  Even less if you attend an accelerated program, but it is a big investment in time and money regardless.  It would be all for nothing if you decide you dislike being a pharmacist after working for only a short period of time.  If you decide to change careers midway through pharmacy school, or shortly after you graduate, you would have to spend additional time and money searching for a new career that you may or may not enjoy compared to a career in pharmacy.  This is why it is very important to do your research in this industry by doing some reading into this field, talking to current pharmacists and pharmacy students, talking to your trusted family members, advisors, and friends, or even your school’s career counselor, and other available and legitimate resources on the Internet.  Working as in intern in the pharmacy department within a hospital or a retail setting before applying to pharmacy school is a great way to receive some real exposure to the life, and get some hands-on experience.  This is a good method of testing whether the pharmacy world is a good fit for you…and whether you’ll be able to endure the next 30-40 years of it…assuming you work until retirement.  Therefore, a little investment in your time to do some preliminary research will go a long way for the rest of your life.  You’ll spend generally eight hours of your day (a third of a full day) if employed full-time, and so it may be beneficial to find out if this career path will bring happiness or dread.

The following may be some indicators that you’ll be content with the pharmacy field:

  • Enjoy working with people of all personalities
  • Enjoy providing customer service to everyone
  • Enjoy learning new things
  • Independent
  • Thick-skinned
  • Disciplined
  • Patient
  • Intelligent, and the passion to seek knowledge and find answers quickly
  • Enjoy science
  • Enjoy working in a busy environment
  • Teaching and training

If you possess the opposite traits from those listed above, you may want to rethink this career, or at least do some more research and work in a pharmacy before you decide to invest more time and money into it.  Keep in mind that although the majority of pharmacists work in a retail drugstore or a hospital setting, there are other career paths such as academia, insurance companies, pharmaceutical companies, research, and consulting.  Pharmacists are known to  be valued for their knowledge on medications, insurance, general science, and some various aspects of healthcare, which is why their skills and knowledge may be utilized in various industry sectors.  To learn about atypical careers outside of the hospital or retail pharmacy setting, it may be a good idea to inquire from your pharmacy schools before you apply on the available elective courses and experiential programs they offer.  You could also inquire about the teachers and professors about their backgrounds to see if your career interests have any relation to their employment history.  They may be able to mentor or advise you on certain career paths based on their own experiences.  Therefore, not only is it a good idea to do some research into the work of a pharmacist, it is an equally sound idea to research the schools you are interested in applying to, and whether they offer special elective courses and experiential programs that will assist you in your pursuit of the your ideal job.

 

 

Complaints in Hospital Pharmacy

Have you ever worked in a hospital pharmacy?  It is much different from working in a retail setting, and it is highly recommended to volunteer or spend some time as a technician before you decide to devote your entire career in this setting.  Hospital pharmacies are usually referred to as inpatient pharmacy.  Although hospitals may have an outpatient pharmacy, which is similar to a retail setting, most people generally think of inpatient pharmacies when thinking about a hospital pharmacy setting.  The inpatient pharmacy serves medications generally for patients who have a room and bed.  Therefore, their policies, protocols, and systems are designed to serve in this capacity depending on the type of medical services offered at the hospital, and the size (e.g. number of rooms and patients) that can be admitted to a hospital.  Many hospital pharmacies require new hires to have experience in a residency if they’ve had no prior hospital experience as a pharmacist.  This may be due to the expanding role of a pharmacist to include clinical duties in areas of anticoagulation, infectious diseases, emergency room support, pediatrics, oncology, and many others.  These “clinical” services being offered by clinical pharmacists are becoming appreciated by other healthcare professionals (e.g. doctors, nurses) and patients as they offer educational services about novel medications to staff, provide optimal medication recommendations in regards to effectiveness and safety for complex treatments as medicines become more and more complicated over time, and even ensure the cost-effectiveness of such treatment in some cases.

The above all sounds great on paper, but unless you have worked in a hospital pharmacy operation, you may not know what you’re getting yourself into.  There are nuances to understand in hospital pharmacy that you may not have to deal with as often or at all in retail pharmacy.  Here, we compile some of the many complaints that could arise in a hospital pharmacy operation in a full-service, or general hospital.

  1.  The schedule.  Full-service general hospitals don’t usually close…they can be open 24 hours a day.  Therefore, pharmacies are usually staffed around-the-clock which means pharmacists will need to work around-the-clock also in shifts.  Sometimes these shifts are not desirable if you’re stuck with the midnight to morning shift.  Sometimes they are not the most preferred if stuck working on weekends or on holidays when you would rather be with your family or have a social life.
  2. Call-outs.  Similar to above, when other members of the pharmacy call out sick, or go on vacation, maternity leave,  you may have to cover them or be asked to take their shift. This happens often as people will always get sick, and workers will always take vacation.
  3. Lack of communication.  When a prior shift (e.g. a morning pharmacist) is working on something important and complex, but does not communicate what they worked on to the next shift pharmacist (e.g. evening pharmacist) for a job they did not finish before they leave the pharmacy to go home.  You can imagine the results when a doctor or nurse calls about the order being worked on by the morning pharmacist, but the evening shift has no clue what they are talking about.
  4. Staff shortages.  Without proper staffing, a hospital pharmacist will be overwhelmed and perform the job of 2-3 pharmacists and technicians.  This is risky because it could lead to errors and fatigue.
  5. Nurses. Nurses want the medication quickly, and may not always provide enough time for the pharmacist to process and send the medication after the order is sent to the pharmacy.  They may not understand that only a few pharmacists manage and review the medications for proper dosing and safety for the entire hospital.  Also, some medications require further processing, such as mixing in the correct diluent, etc.
  6. Missing medications.  Sometimes, even after medications are sent, nurses cannot find the delivered medications…thus requiring pharmacists to scramble and look for the medications in the pharmacy to see if they were sent up.  This wastes a lot of time, and results in duplicative work.  Many times, those missing medications are later found by the nurses themselves because they may not have looked in the correct locations, or when another nurse takes the delivered medication without telling the other nurses who are looking for the medication (lack of communication).

The above are only some of the scenarios of things that may lead to complaints by hospital pharmacists.  Obviously, it is highly recommended to have some exposure in this setting before embarking on this career path.